Turning it as much as 11: Android 11 for builders

Posted by Stephanie Cuthbertson, Director, Product Administration

Android 11 logo

Android 11 is right here! At present we’re pushing the supply to the Android Open Source Project (AOSP) and formally releasing the most recent model of Android. We constructed Android 11 with a give attention to three themes: a Folks-centric method to communication, Controls to let customers shortly get to and management all of their sensible units, and Privateness to provide customers extra methods to regulate how information on units is shared. Learn extra in our Keyword post.

For builders, Android 11 has a ton of recent capabilities. You’ll need to try dialog notifications, system and media controls, one-time permissions, enhanced 5G assist, IME transitions, and a lot extra. That can assist you work and develop sooner, we additionally added new instruments like compatibility toggles, ADB incremental installs, app exit causes API, information entry auditing API, Kotlin nullability annotations, and plenty of others. We labored to make Android 11 an excellent launch for you, and we will’t wait to see what you’ll construct!

Look ahead to official Android 11 coming to a tool close to you, beginning at present with Pixel 2, 3, 3a, 4, and 4a units. To get began, go to the Android 11 developer site.

Folks, Controls, Privateness

Folks

Android 11 is people-centric and expressive, reimagining the best way we’ve got conversations on our telephones, and constructing an OS that may acknowledge and prioritize an important individuals in our lives. For builders, Android 11 helps you construct deeper conversational and private interactions into your apps.

  • Dialog notifications seem in a devoted part on the prime of the shade, with a people-forward design and dialog particular actions, resembling opening the dialog as a bubble, making a dialog shortcut on the house display screen, or setting a reminder.
  • Bubbles – Bubbles assist customers preserve conversations in view and accessible whereas multitasking on their units. Messaging and chat apps ought to use the Bubbles API on notifications to allow this in Android 11.
  • Consolidated keyboard strategies let Autofill apps and Enter Methodology Editors (IMEs) securely provide customers context-specific entities and strings straight in an IME’s suggestion strip, the place they’re most handy for customers.

mobile display of conversation UI

Bubbles and people-centric conversations.

Controls

Android 11 lets customers shortly get to and management all of their sensible units in a single house. Builders can use new APIs to assist customers floor sensible units and management media:

  • Machine Controls make it sooner and simpler than ever for customers to entry and management their related units. Now, by merely lengthy urgent the facility button, they’re capable of carry up system controls immediately, and in a single place. Apps can use a brand new API to look within the controls. More here.
  • Media Controls make it fast and handy for customers to change the output system for his or her audio or video content material, whether or not it’s headphones, audio system and even their TV. More here.

Device controls on mobile device

Media controls on mobile device

Machine controls and media controls.

Privateness

In Android 11, we’re giving customers much more management and transparency over delicate permissions and dealing to maintain units safer by sooner updates.

One-time permission – Now customers may give an app entry to the system microphone, digicam, or location, only for one time. The app can request permissions once more the following time the app is used. More here.

Permission notification

One-time permission dialog in Android 11.

Background location – Background location now requires extra steps from the consumer past granting a runtime permission. In case your app wants background location, the system will be certain that you first ask for foreground location. You’ll be able to then broaden your entry to background location by a separate permission request, and the system will take the consumer to Settings to finish the permission grant.

Additionally notice that in February we announced that Google Play builders might want to get approval to entry background location of their app to forestall misuse. We’re giving builders extra time to make adjustments and will not be implementing the coverage for current apps till 2021.

Permissions auto-reset – if customers haven’t used an app for an prolonged time frame, Android 11 will “auto-reset” all the runtime permissions related to the app and notify the consumer. The app can request the permissions once more the following time the app is used. More here.

Scoped storage – We’ve continued our work to raised shield app and consumer information on exterior storage, and made additional enhancements to assist builders extra simply migrate. More here.

Google Play system updates – Launched final 12 months, Google Play system updates assist us expedite updates of core OS parts to units within the Android ecosystem. In Android 11, we greater than doubled the variety of updatable modules, together with 12 new modules that can assist enhance privateness, safety, and consistency for customers and builders.

BiometricPrompt API – Builders can now use the BiometricPrompt API to specify the biometric authenticator energy required by their app to unlock or entry delicate components of the app. For backward compatibility, we’ve simply added these capabilities to the Jetpack Biometric library. We’ll share additional updates because the work progresses.

Id Credential API – This can unlock new use instances resembling cellular drivers licences, Nationwide ID, and Digital ID. We’re working with numerous authorities businesses and trade companions to guarantee that Android 11 is prepared for digital-first id experiences.

You’ll be able to examine all the Android 11 privateness options here.

Useful innovation

Enhanced 5G assist – Android 11 consists of up to date developer assist that will help you benefit from the sooner speeds and decrease latency of 5G networks. You’ll be able to study when the consumer is connected to a 5G network, examine whether or not the connection is metered, and get an estimate of the connection bandwidth. That can assist you construct experiences now for 5G, we’ve additionally added 5G assist within the Android Emulator. To get began with 5G on Android, go to the 5G developer page.

image of Google Maps on mobile

Transferring past the house, 5G can for instance allow you to improve your “on-the-go” expertise by offering seamless interactions with the world round you from family and friends to companies.

New display screen varieties – Machine makers are persevering with to innovate by bringing thrilling new system screens to market, resembling hole-punch and waterfall screens. Android 11 provides assist for these within the platform, with APIs to allow you to optimize your apps. You’ll be able to handle each hole-punch and waterfall screens utilizing the prevailing display cutout APIs. You’ll be able to set a new window layout attribute to make use of all the waterfall display screen, and a brand new waterfall insets API helps you handle interplay close to the sides.

Name screening assist – Android 11 helps call-screening apps do extra to handle robocalls. Apps can confirm an incoming name’s STIR/SHAKEN status (requirements that shield towards caller ID spoofing) as a part of the decision particulars, they usually can report a name rejection cause. Apps can even customise a system-provided post call screen to let customers carry out actions resembling marking a name as spam or including to contacts.

Polish and high quality

OS resiliency – In Android 11 we’ve made the OS extra dynamic and resilient as a complete by fine-tuning reminiscence reclaiming processes, resembling forcing user-imperceptible restarts of processes based mostly on RSS HWM thresholds. Additionally, to enhance efficiency and reminiscence, Android 11 provides Binder caching, which optimizes extremely used IPC calls to system providers by caching information for those who retrieve comparatively static information. Binder caching additionally improves battery life by lowering CPU time.

Synchronized IME transitions – New APIs allow you to synchronize your app’s content material with the IME (enter technique editor, or on-screen keyboard) and system bars as they animate on and offscreen, making it a lot simpler to create pure, intuitive and jank-free IME transitions. For frame-perfect transitions, a brand new WindowInsetsAnimation.Callback API notifies apps of per-frame adjustments to insets whereas the system bars or the IME animate. Moreover, you need to use a brand new WindowInsetsAnimationController API to regulate system UI varieties like system bars, IME, immersive mode, and others. More here.

Synchronized IME transition through insets animation listener.

App-driven IME experience through WindowInsetsAnimationController.

Synchronized IME transition by insets animation listener.

App-driven IME expertise by WindowInsetsAnimationController.

HEIF animated drawables – The ImageDecoder API now helps you to decode and render picture sequence animations saved in HEIF information, so you can also make use of high-quality property whereas minimizing impression on community information and APK measurement. HEIF picture sequences can provide drastic file-size reductions for picture sequences when compared to animated GIFs.

Native picture decoder – New NDK APIs let apps decode and encode pictures (resembling JPEG, PNG, WebP) from native code for graphics or publish processing, whereas retaining a smaller APK measurement because you don’t must bundle an exterior library. The native decoder additionally takes benefit of Android’s course of for ongoing platform safety updates. See the NDK sample code for examples of methods to use the APIs.

Low-latency video decoding in MediaCodec – Low latency video is essential for real-time video streaming apps and providers like Stadia. Video codecs that assist low latency playback return the primary body of the stream as shortly as potential after decoding begins. Apps can use new APIs to check and configure low-latency playback for a particular codec.

Variable refresh fee – Apps and video games can use a new API to set a most popular body fee for his or her home windows. Most Android units refresh the show at 60Hz refresh fee, however some assist a number of refresh charges, resembling 90Hz in addition to 60Hz, with runtime switching. On these units, the system makes use of the app’s most popular body fee to decide on the most effective refresh fee for the app. The API is obtainable in each the SDK and NDK. See the main points here.

Dynamic useful resource loader – Android 11 features a new public API to let apps load assets and property dynamically at runtime. With the Resource Loader framework you may embrace a base set of assets in your app or sport after which load extra assets, or modify the loaded assets, as wanted at runtime.

Neural Networks API (NNAPI) 1.3 – We proceed so as to add ops and controls to assist machine studying on Android units. To optimize frequent use-cases, NNAPI 1.3 provides APIs for precedence and timeout, reminiscence domains, and asynchronous command queue. New ops for superior fashions embrace signed integer uneven quantization, branching and loops, and a hard-swish op that helps speed up next-generation on-device imaginative and prescient fashions resembling MobileNetV3.

Developer friendliness

App compatibility instruments – We labored to reduce compatibility impacts in your apps by making most Android 11 conduct adjustments opt-in, in order that they received’t take impact till you modify the apps’ targetSdkVersion to 30. If you’re distributing by Google Play, you’ll have greater than a 12 months to opt-in to those adjustments, however we advocate getting began testing early. That can assist you take a look at, Android 11 helps you to allow or disable lots of the opt-in adjustments individually. More here.

App exit causes – When your app exits, it’s essential to grasp why the app exited and what the state was on the time — throughout the numerous system varieties, reminiscence configurations, and consumer eventualities that your app runs in. Android 11 makes this simpler with an exit reasons API that you need to use to request details of the app’s latest exits.

Knowledge entry auditing – information entry auditing helps you to instrument your app to raised perceive the way it accesses consumer information and from which consumer flows. For instance, it might probably show you how to determine any inadvertent entry to personal information in your personal code or inside any SDKs you may be utilizing. More here.

ADB Incremental – Putting in very massive APKs with ADB (Android Debug Bridge) throughout growth may be gradual and impression your productiveness, particularly these builders engaged on Android Video games. With ADB Incremental in Android 11, putting in massive APKs (2GB+) out of your growth laptop to an Android 11 system is as much as 10x sooner. More here.

Kotlin nullability annotations – Android 11 provides nullability annotations to extra strategies within the public API. And, it upgrades plenty of current annotations from warnings to errors. These show you how to catch nullability points at construct time, moderately than at runtime. More here.

Get your apps prepared for Android 11

With Android 11 on its method to customers, now could be the time to end your compatibility testing and publish your updates.

Flow chart steps for getting your apps ready for Android 11.

Listed below are among the prime behavior changes to observe for (these apply no matter your app’s targetSdkVersion):

  • One-time permission – Customers can now grant single-use permission to entry location, system microphone and digicam. More here.
  • Exterior storage entry – Apps can not entry different apps’ information in exterior storage. More here.
  • Scudo hardened allocator – Scudo is now the heap reminiscence allocator for native code in apps. More here.
  • File descriptor sanitizer – Fdsan is now enabled by default to detect file descriptor dealing with points for native code in apps. More here.

Android 11 additionally consists of opt-in behavior changes – these have an effect on your app as soon as it’s concentrating on the brand new platform. We advocate assessing these adjustments as quickly as you’ve printed the appropriate model of your app. For extra info on compatibility testing and instruments, try the assets we shared for Android 11 Compatibility week and go to the Android 11 developer site for technical particulars.

Improve your app with new options and APIs

Subsequent, whenever you’re prepared, dive into Android 11 and study concerning the new features and APIs that you need to use. Listed below are among the prime options to get began with.

We advocate these for all apps:

  • Darkish theme (from Android 10) – Make sure that to offer a constant expertise for customers who allow system-wide darkish theme by including a Dark theme or enabling Force Dark.
  • Gesture navigation (from Android 10) – Help gesture navigation by going edge-to-edge and be certain that customized gestures work properly with gestures. More here.
  • Sharing shortcuts (from Android 10) – Apps that need to obtain shared information ought to use the sharing shortcuts APIs to create share targets. Apps that need to ship shared information ought to make certain to make use of the system share sheet.
  • Synchronized IME transitions – Present seamless transitions to your customers utilizing the brand new WindowInsets and associated APIs. More here.
  • New display screen varieties – for units with hole-punch or waterfall screens, make certain to check and alter your content material for these screens as wanted. More here.

We advocate these if related in your app:

  • Conversations – Messaging and communication apps can take part within the dialog expertise by offering long-lived sharing shortcuts and surfacing conversations in notifications. More here.
  • Bubbles – Bubbles are a method to preserve conversations in view and accessible whereas multitasking. Use the Bubbles API on notifications to allow this.
  • 5G – In case your app or content material can profit from the sooner speeds and decrease latency of 5G, discover our developer resources to see what you may construct.
  • Machine controls – In case your app helps exterior sensible units, make certain these units are accessible from the brand new Android 11 system controls space. More here.
  • Media controls – For media apps, we advocate supporting the Android 11 media controls so customers can handle playback and resumption from the Fast Settings shade. More here.

Learn extra about all the Android 11 options at developer.android.com/11.

Coming to a tool close to you!

Android 11 will start rolling out at present on choose Pixel, OnePlus, Xiaomi, OPPO and realme telephones, with extra companions launching and upgrading units over the approaching months. If in case you have a Pixel 2, 3, 3a, 4, or 4a telephone, together with these enrolled on this 12 months’s Beta program, look ahead to the over-the-air replace arriving quickly!

Android 11 manufacturing facility system pictures for Pixel units are additionally obtainable by the Android Flash Tool, or you may download them here. As all the time, you will get the most recent Android Emulator system pictures through the SDK Supervisor in Android Studio. For broader testing on different Treble-compliant units, Generic System Photographs (GSI) are available here.

If you happen to’re on the lookout for the Android 11 supply code, you may discover it here within the Android Open Source Project repository underneath the Android 11 branches.

What’s subsequent?

We’ll quickly be closing the preview difficulty tracker and retiring open bugs logged towards Developer Preview or Beta builds, however please preserve the suggestions coming! If you happen to nonetheless see a problem that you simply filed within the preview tracker, simply file a new issue towards Android 11 within the AOSP difficulty tracker.

Thanks once more to the numerous builders and early adopters who participated within the preview program this 12 months! You gave us nice suggestions to assist form the discharge, and also you filed hundreds of points which have made Android 11 a greater platform for everybody.

We’re wanting ahead to seeing your apps on Android 11!

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